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Table of Contents
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 92

Animal bites and tetanus prophylaxis


Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Dr. Munif Islamoglu Kastamonu State Hospital, Kastamonu, Turkey

Date of Web Publication18-Sep-2017

Correspondence Address:
Hasan Tahsin Gozdas
Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Dr. Munif Islamoglu Kastamonu State Hospital, Kastamonu
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.12980/jad.6.2017JOAD_2016_71

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How to cite this article:
Gozdas HT. Animal bites and tetanus prophylaxis. J Acute Dis 2017;6:92

How to cite this URL:
Gozdas HT. Animal bites and tetanus prophylaxis. J Acute Dis [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Oct 2];6:92. Available from: https://www.jadweb.org/text.asp?2017/6/2/92/214681



Dear Editor,

In a recent article, Babazadeh et al. investigated the cost of postexposure rabies prophylaxis which is a signifant issue on the epidemiology of acute animal bites[1]. However, I have some comments regarding to this article.

Animal bites are often dirty wounds. So, every patient suffered from an animal bite should be evaluated for the necessity of tetanus prophylaxis, which is also an important subpart of postexposure rabies prophylaxis[2]. So, the cost of tetanus prophylaxis also increases the economic burden. Information on how many patients received tetanus prophylaxis and the financial burden of this will bring a more comprehensive view.

Another important socioeconomic aspect of animal bites is that the persons suffering from animal bites have to stay away from work and they can not provide a positive contribution to the economy in the period because they are away from work. So, animal bite injuries also cause an indirect increase in the economic burden due to loss of labor force.

It is well known that rabies is almost always a fatal disease[3]. Four cases of rabies in animals were discovered in this study whereas no case of human rabies was reported. Information should be given regarding to the method used to diagnose rabies in these four animals and factors might have resulted in the survival of patients bitten by these animals.

Wounds owing to dog bites tend to be polymicrobial. The most common organisms causing infections in dog bite injuries are Pasteurella, Streptococci, Staphylococci and Fusobacterium. Anaerobic bacteria also pose an important risk for infection as they comprise 30%–40% of the canine mouth flora[4]. So, antibiotic treatment is also given in animal bite injuries to prevent skin and soft tissue infection. This condition also increases the economic burden.

Rabies is transmitted to humans through the bites of rabid animals. Therefore, control of rabies in animals is at least as important as in humans. This means that physicians and veterinary doctors should participate together in rabies control programmes, since multidisciplinary studies by physicians and veterinary doctors are necessary to reduce the cost of animal bite injuries.

Conflict of interest statement

The author reports no conflict of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Babazadeh T, Nikbakhat HA, Daemi A, Yegane-kasgari M, Ghaffari-fam S, Banaye-Jeddi M. Epidemiology of acute animal bite and the direct cost of rabies vaccination. J Acute Dis 2016; 5(6): 488-492.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gözdaş HT, Hatipoglu M. Letter to the Editor. Wounds 2016; 28(6): A8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Manning SE, Rupprecht CE, Fishbein D, Hanlon CA, Lumlertdacha B, Guerra M, et al. Human rabies prevention – United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep 2008; 57(RR-3): 1-28.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Talan DA, Citron DM, Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Goldstein EJ. Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites. Emergency Medicine Animal Bite Infection Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 340(2): 85-92.  Back to cited text no. 4
    




 

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