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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 98-106

A comprehensive overview on sandfly fever

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, and Department of Environment Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
2 Department of Medical Entomology, Faculty of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Hamid Kassiri
Department of Medical Entomology, Faculty of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz
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Source of Support: This project has been financially supported by Student Research Committee, Chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences with project number 00S15, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.316673

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Sandfly fever is a febrile emerging arboviral illness which is a huge threat posed to public health. Sandfly fever viruses (Sicilian, Naples, and Toscana) are endemic to the Mediterranean region. Evidence suggests an increase in the activity of sandfly-borne phleboviruses and their extension to other places. The infection is relatively benign but may cause severe clinical manifestations and complications. Sandfly fever viruses belongs to the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae), and the four main serotypes include sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, sandfly fever Cyprus virus, and Toscana virus. Sandfly fever has flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, photophobia, malaise, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. The incubation period of the disease is 4-8 days, and the patient usually recovers within a week. The first infection provides the host with immunity. Sandfly fever viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected female sandflies, thus, the epidemiology of sandfly fever is closely related to the presence and activity of sandfly species that act as the vectors for transmission. Cases and outbreaks of the disease have been reported worldwide for more than 100 years. All in all, this disease is important for non-endemic countries because it is a travel-related and/or imported illness.

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