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CASE REPORT
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 251-253

Gastric ultrasound-assisted diagnosis of undifferentiated shock: A case report


1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital; Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Sciences in Infectious Diseases, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Alireza Bahmani
Department of Emergency Medicine, Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.362818

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Rationale: Peptic ulcer disease and variceal bleeding are two of the most common causes of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. GI bleeding can present with symptoms of hemodynamic instability such as tachycardia and shock. Patient’s Concern: A 33-year-old man with confusion and hypotension (blood pressure: 70/40 mmHg and pulse rate: 140/min) was brought by emergency medical services from home to the emergency department without any companion. The patient was in undifferentiated shock. His hypotension was assessed with inferior vena cava (IVC) size and collapsibility, and rapid ultrasound in shock and hypotension (RUSH) protocol was used to investigate the cause of his shock. Following the RUSH protocol when scanning the IVC, parts of the stomach were seen in its vicinity and suspended heterogeneous particles were observed in the fluid. After seeing these particles, we suspected GI bleeding. Diagnosis: Endoscopy confirmed GI bleeding. Interventions: After placing an orogastric tube and suction, about 2 L of coffee-ground fluid with clots was removed. We started intravenous proton-pump inhibitors 80 mg bolus, followed by a continuous infusion of 8 mg/h. The patient received about 2 L of normal saline and 2 units of packed red blood cells to correct his hypotension. Outcomes: After being admitted to the GI ward and treated for three days, the patient was discharged from the hospital with a hemoglobin level of 11 g/dL and continued to have an outpatient follow-up at the clinic. Lessons: The use of gastric ultrasound in conjunction with the RUSH protocol can help to diagnose undifferentiated hypotensive shock. The components of the RUSH exam are the heart (H), IVC (I), Morrison’s/FAST abdominal views with the aorta (MA), and pulmonary and pipes scanning (P), and can be memorized with the mnemonic: HI-MAP. We would like to introduce a new mnemonic: Hi-MAPS, adding stomach (S) to the RUSH protocol in undifferentiated hypotension and shock to evaluate upper GI bleeding.


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