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Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among medical students: A cross-sectional study
Sonam Maheshwari, Puneet Kumar Gupta, Richa Sinha, Pravesh Rawat
May 2020, 9(3):100-104
Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of medical students towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was developed and given to the students of a government medical college in Uttarakhand. The demographics, mean knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants were investigated, and the scores were calculated. t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of the total participants (n=354), 50.3% were male and 54.5% were 21-23 years. Almost all the participants (96.6%) increase the frequency of washing hands under the influence of COVID-19. Although no significant relationship was found between different religions, age-categories in terms of knowledge, the participants who were aged 21-23 years had higher knowledge. In addition, gender had a significant impact on practice scores (P<0.05) while no demographic variable was found to have a significant relation with attitude score (P>0.05). Conclusions: The majority of the participants had good knowledge, positive attitude, and sufficient practice. Females and males have significantly different practices. Although the results are very positive, it is suggested that people should continue to strengthen knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19, so that India can win the battle against the disease.
  43,588 3,432 72
Eslicarbazepine acetate: A therapeutic agent of paramount importance in acute anticonvulsant therapy
Farah Iram, Shah Alam Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Anees A Siddiqui, Asif Husain
November 2017, 6(6):245-254
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new, once daily, orally administered, third generation antiepileptic drug which is indicated in the treatment of partial-onset seizures. ESL is known to exert it’s anticonvulsant effect by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channels. Several clinical trials and pharmacological studies have revealed that seizure control was better with ESL monotherapy (1 200 or 1 600 mg once daily) following a switch from other antiepileptic drugs in comparison with pseudo-placebo patients. The studies have indicated the ESL to be well tolerated and produced only mild to moderate emergent adverse events with the therapy. Being a dibenzazepine family member, structure and chemistry of ESL resembles more or less to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine. ESL differs structurally from carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine at the 10, 11 position of dibenazepine nucleus. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism and thus helps to prevent the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites. ESL following oral administration is rapidly metabolised to active metabolite namely S-licarbazepine which is responsible for its pharmacological activity. ESL exhibits acceptable pharmacokinetic profile and shows insignificant drug-drug interactions. In phase III clinical program, ESL was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one or two other antiepileptic drugs.
  38,979 587 1
Acute abdomen presentation in dengue fever during recent outbreak
Bal Kishan Gupta, Hardeva Ram Nehara, Sahil Parmar, Shyam Lal Meena, Suresh Gajraj, Jigyasa Gupta
September 2017, 6(5):198-204
Objective: To evaluate the etiology, clinical profile and outcome of acute abdomen presentation in Dengue Fever (DF). Methods: This clinical prospective study was done on confirmed cases of DF admitted in the department of medicine during recent epidemic (September 2015 to November 2016). All patients were evaluated clinically and by laboratory and imaging investigations and followed-up during hospital stay till discharge. The cause of pain abdomen was ascertained by blood tests (amylase, lipase and liver function test etc), radiology (Flat plate abdomen-erect, Ultrasonography of abdomen, CECT abdomen) and/or endoscopy. Results: Out of the 501 patients diagnosed as DF, 165 (32.93%) presented with acute abdomen. Some patients presented in other departments like surgery, gastroenterology and emergency, were later diagnosed as DF on laboratory evaluation. Various causes of acute abdomen in our study were nonspecific severe pain abdomen (67 cases), acute hepatitis (46) one had acute fulminant hepatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis (31), ascitis (12), acute hyperemic gastritis with malena (5), acute pancreatitis (2), and 1 case each of acute appendicitis and acute jejuno-ileal intussuception. All patients were managed conservatively. One patient of acute pancreatitis died of multi-organ failure. Conclusion: Our study concludes that clinical vigilance about such type of presentations is important as timely recognition can influence outcome and may prevent unwanted surgery.
  38,185 687 4
The chest X ray in pulmonary embolism: Westermark sign, Hampton's Hump and Palla's sign. What's the difference?
Tan Si Hong Shawn, Lim Xin Yan, Fatimah Lateef
May 2018, 7(3):99-102
Pulmonary embolism (PE), with the incidence of about 60 per 100 000 annually, can be a life- threatening disease if it is not treated promptly. It has been estimated that some 10% of PE patients die within the first hour of the event. Untreated PE has a mortality of about 30%. PE is a condition that is treatable if suspected and diagnosed early. The chest radiograph is still the first investigation that is ordered in patients presenting with cardiorespiratory symptoms or symptoms suggestive of PE. The CXR is also helpful in identifying or excluding other conditions or diagnoses. Thus, knowing and understanding some of the more specific CXR signs can be useful. We suggest that physicians to be aware of and utilize CXR findings such as Palla's sign, Westermark sign and Hamptons hump to help with the diagnosis of PE and to exclude other conditions that can mimic venous thrombo-embolism. Even if these signs are not common, their presence, even in an unsuspected patient without a high pretest probability of PE, should prompt further investigations such as a D-dimer test, lung scintigraphy or computed tomography pulmonary angiography as required.
  34,125 1,702 4
A severe case of levothyroxine intoxication successfully treated in intensive care unit
Yusuf Savran, Tugce Mengi, Merve Keskinkilic
August 2018, 7(4):175-177
Levothyroxine intoxication is a rare clinical entity which is usually asymptomatic. However, severe symptoms such as respiratory failure, malignant hyperthermia, seizures, arrhythmia, and coma have been reported. In this case report, a patient who ingested high dose (15 mg) levothyroxine for suicide and admitted to intensive care unit was presented. There was a decrease in Glasgow coma score in the follow-up. The patient was intubated due to acute respiratory failure. Gastric lavage, activated charcoal, methylprednisolone, cholestyramine and therapeuthic plasma exchange were administered. Despite ingestion of high dose of levothyroxine, thyrotoxicosis symptoms resolved with appropriate treatment and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit.
  16,689 640 3
The effects of large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E on nerve injury, neurotrophic and oxidative stress in patients with acute craniocerebral injury
Cheng Zhang, Jian-Ming Li, Jun-Lin Hu, Xia Zhou
March 2018, 7(2):69-73
Objective: To study the effects of large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E on nerve injury, neurotrophic and oxidative stress in patients with acute craniocerebral injury. Methods: Patients with acute craniocerebral trauma who were admitted to the Third People’s Hospital of Zigong from April 2014 to December 2016 were selected as the subjects and were randomly divided into two groups. The control group received conventional treatment, and the intervention group received large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E combined with conventional treatment. On the 3th day and 7th day after treatment, peripheral blood was collected and serum was isolated, then the contents of nerve injury index NSE, S100B, NGB, UCH-L1, Tf, Ft and neurotrophic indexes NTF-α , BDNF, NGF and IGF-I were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and the contents of SOD, GPx, CAT, OH-, O2-, MDA and AOPP were measured by radioactive immunoprecipitation kit. Results: 3th day and 7th day after treatment, the contents of NSE, S100B, NGB, UCH-L1, Tf, Ft, NTF-α , BDNF, NGF, IGF-I, OH-, O2-, MDA and AOPP in the intervention group were all significantly lower than those in the control group. The content of SOD, GPx and CAT in serum in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusions: High-dose vitamin C and vitamin E treatment can alleviate nerve injury, oxidative stress response, and improve neurotrophic state in patients with acute craniocerebral injury.
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Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among central retinal artery occlusion patients: A case series-HORA study report No. 3
Sunny Chi Lik Au, Callie Ka Li Ko
July 2021, 10(4):147-149
Introduction: COVID-19 patients are susceptible to hypercoagulability, thromboembolic, and vasculitis state; central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) could be caused by hyperviscosity syndrome, thromboembolic accidents, and vasculitis. Evolving case reports are correlating CRAO with COVID-19 patients. Our case series aims to reveal the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among CRAO patients under the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Medical records of all CRAO patients who attended our tertiary referral hospital, during COVID-19 local outbreak (March to November 2020), were reviewed. Respiratory tract samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by the validated Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay. If patients were able to cooperate, oropharyngeal saliva samples were obtained. Otherwise, nasopharyngeal and deep throat swabs were taken by registered nurses. Results: A total of 15 CRAO patients (7 males, 8 females) were identified during the 9-month study period. The mean age was 72.1-years (range 45-88 year). None of the patients were infected by SARS-CoV-2 before their CRAO disease episodes. Three patients had a history of CRAO over the contralateral eye. No patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 up to their last follow-up (mean 255.4 days, range 152-341 days). Without any COVID-19 positive case, correlation statistical tests on SARS-CoV-2 infection and CRAO were not established. Conclusions: Some of the presumed COVID-19 related CRAO cases may be just coincident with at-risk patients, as COVID-19 is prevalent across the world. More in-depth research, with adjustment to known confounding risk factors, is needed to establish a genuine correlation.
  14,072 177 3
An epidemiological report on the burden and trend of injuries in the Philippines from 2011 to 2018
Imee T Macaranas, Kin Israel R Notarte, Abbygail Therese M Ver, Adriel M Pastrana, Franchesca J Chua, Derick Erl P Sumalapao
September 2020, 9(5):200-205
Objective: To describe the epidemiological distribution of injury cases in the Philippines from 2011 to 2018. Methods: A retrospective review of records from the Online National Electronic Injury Surveillance System involving trauma cases was done, and data were collated, tabulated, and statistically analyzed. Results: A total of 668 179 injury cases were recorded, and 68.99% of these cases involved males. Vulnerable individuals belonged to the group aged 15-29 years (34.01%). The most populated regions in the country, the National Capital Region (14.90%) and Region IVA (13.96%), incurred the highest number of recorded cases. Traffic crash (32.67%) was reported to be the major cause of injury; and open wounds (37.56%) and abrasion (26.23%) were found to be the most common types of injury. Conclusions: The burden of injury remains high in the Philippines due to the lack of resources and inadequate healthcare. The findings of the present study on the distribution of injury cases provide useful information for taking appropriate preventive measures, developing effective safety guidelines, allocating limited resources in an appropriate manner, and implementing necessary public health programs.
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Latest research progress on acute nephrotic syndrome
Satinder Kakar, Vishal Kumar, Ramandeep Singh
November 2017, 6(6):255-259
Etiology of nephrotic syndrome is somewhat complex in nature. It may range from primary to secondary forms. Nephrotic syndrome patients often need immunosuppressive treatment although it has some side effects and may lead to renal disease which may be acute or severe. This review deals with herbal treatment and other recent approaches for treating symptoms of nephrotic syndrome.
  9,782 557 -
Hyponatremia in the acute phase of spinal cord trauma: Review
Luis Rafael Moscote Salazar, Amit Agrawal, Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Huber S Padilla-Zambrano, Boris Vladimir Cabrera-Nanclares, Romario Mendoza-Flórez, Samer Hoz, Alexis Narvaez-Rojas
May 2018, 7(3):103-107
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disturbance usually observed in neurosurgical patients undergoing surgical management of traumatic, as well as, nontraumatic intracranial pathology. The spinal cord trauma is also associated with occasional development of such hyponatremia; it usually occurs within the first two-weeks of the injury. Hyponatremia can lead to alterations of consciousness, convulsions, coma, cardiac arrhythmias and on rare occasions, death. Authors present a practical oriented review of the literature.
  8,144 393 2
Myasthenia gravis exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment
Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
March 2017, 6(2):85-86
An important problem in management of the case with myasthenia gravis (MG) is the control of exacerbation. There are several possible causes of exacerbation of MG including the use of drug. Here, the authors report a case of MG exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment.
  7,873 294 -
Atypical zoonotic pox: Acute merging illness that can be easily forgotten
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
March 2018, 7(2):88-89
Pox is an important infection that can cause the acute illness with dermatological manifestation. Apart from the well-known pox infections, the emerging zoonotic pox infections become interesting new issue in infectious medicine. In this short review, the acute illness which results from new important zoonotic pox infections such as monkeypox, cowpox, raccoon pox and buffalopox is discussed and summarized.
  7,797 310 42
Acute ascites as a clinical manifestation of dengue: A case report
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
November 2020, 9(6):270-271
Rationale: Dengue is an important tropical disease that can cause acute hemorrhagic fever. Other atypical clinical presentations of dengue also can occur, and acute ascites is one of them. Patients’ concern: A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the physician with acute abdominal extension for 2 days. He revealed a history of fatigue and right upper abdominal pain in the past 4 days. Diagnosis: Dengue-induced acute ascites. Intervention: Standard fluid replacement therapy. Outcome: The clinical finding of the patient returned to normal within 5 days. Lesson: Since dengue has been expanding its endemic area at present, an atypical clinical presentation is possible and should not be ignored in the process of diagnosis. In addition, the clinical presentation of acute distention of abdomen with abnormal petechiae is a good diagnostic implication for dengue-induced ascites.
  7,777 166 -
Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran
Hamid Kassiri, Masoud Lotfi, Atefe Ebrahimi
November 2017, 6(6):272-277
Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics. Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5%) and hands (22.7%) were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population. Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.
  7,117 326 1
A review on Acinetobacter baumannii
Xin Wang, Li-Jie Qin
January 2019, 8(1):16-20
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. By summarizing the epidemiology, molecular and drug resistance mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment strategies of Acinetobacter baumannii, the clinical outcome is finally improved.
  6,137 989 5
Hypertriglyceridemia–induced acute pancreatitis: A systematic review of the literature
Ionut Negoi, Sorin Paun, Massimo Sartelli, Fausto Catena, Luca Ansaloni, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Mircea Beuran
January 2017, 6(1):1-5
Objective: To summarize the current evidence about the hypertriglyceridemia–induced acute pancreatitis (HAP). Methods: Systematic review of the English language literature was conducted using PubMed/ Medline database from its inception until August 2016. As a searching methodology, we have used a combination of ‘acute pancreatitis’ and ‘hypertriglyceridemia’ as keywords into the title. Results: The diagnosis of HAP should be based on two out of the three criteria recommended by the international guidelines: characteristic clinical picture, serum pancreatic enzymes, and appropriate imagistics. The diagnosis of HAP should be distinguished between mild hypertriglyceridemia (> 150 mg/dL), which accompanies around one-third of all-causes acute pancreatitis, and severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 1 000 mg/dL) which generates acute pancreatitis. There is mixed evidence regarding a worse prognosis for patients with HAP, and a clear conclusion cannot be drawn. Similar to all the other etiologies, in HAP the initial treatment efforts should be nonspecific and addressed to acute pancreatitis, while pharmacologic and mechanical techniques should be added to lower the serum triglycerides as soon as possible. Conclusions: We may conclude that HAP should be managed to respect all the general principles, also adding all the available resources to lower the serum triglycerides value, as early as possible in the acute setting and on long-term to prevent recurrences.
  6,328 728 -
"Reconciliation vessel" within de I-Ching book: Theoretical methodological analysis of its relevant hexagrams
Adrián Ángel Inchauspe
March 2018, 7(2):49-68
The I-Ching is one of the most significant texts in the literature of the world and embodies, as no other text does, the Chinese spirit and thought. Its perpetuation along millennia has exercised crucial influence on the development of Chinese philosophy and medicine. The hypotheses of its abstractions compose a “body of assumptions” that hierarchs concepts through a self-regulated process of reciprocal control, which allows the accurate prediction of specific sequences of events according to “fields of similarities”. This peculiarity enables this system of knowledge to make possible predictions based upon the Natural Laws with incredible accuracy, which is effective to process expectations and arguments or to affirm or reject its judgments. A detailed analysis of two consecutive hexagrams (N 23 & N 24) allows the understanding not only of the bases that consolidate the “Reconciliation vessel” but also of the specific determination of its function in the frame of Risk management that can be compared to present ISO standards.
  6,558 444 -
Severe eclampsia and HELLP syndrome at 18 weeks of pregnancy in a patient with chronic hypertension
Tomasz Wojewoda, Edyta Unkiewicz, Ewa Wojewoda-Chmiel, Piotr Bijak, Michal Bogusiewicz
November 2018, 7(6):265-267
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, by definition, developing after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Here we present an atypical case of severe preeclampsia complicated by generalized convulsions (eclampsia) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome in an 18 weeks pregnant patient with chronic hypertension. Occurrence of these complications was preceded by upper right quadrant abdominal pain and severe hypertension. In this case no evidence of autoimmunity disorders or molar pregnancy was found.
  6,405 356 -
Staphylococcus cohnii: Not so innocuous
Sunil Garg
September 2017, 6(5):239-240
Staphylococcus cohnii is not known to causes meningitis. We present a case of mennigitis due to this organism. We are highlighting this case not only for its rarity but rapidity of worsening also. This report indicates that Staphylococcus cohnii are not as innocuous as once thought to be and these organisms should not be disregarded as possible skin contaminants. Before labelling them as contaminants their possible association with disease should be ruled out.
  6,059 454 2
Acute otitis media with facial nerve palsy: our experiences at a tertiary care teaching hospital of eastern India
Santosh Kumar Swain, Alok Das, Jatindra Nath Mohanty
September 2019, 8(5):204-207
Objective: To assess acute otitis media with facial nerve paralysis, its prognosis, and treatment. Methods: It is a retrospective study. Thriteen patients of acute otitis media associated with facial nerve paralysis attended the outpatient department of otorhinolaryngology between May 2017 and April 2019. All patients were clinically assessed with appropriate investigations, prognosis, and treatment. Results: Out of 13 patients, 2 were identified with complete facial paralysis and the remaining 11 patients presented with incomplete paralysis. Medical treatment including antibiotics and corticosteroids failed, while myringotomy and facial nerve decompression were done with a favorable outcome. Eleven patients recovered to grade-I (House-Brackmann) and 2 cases to grade-II (House-Brackmann). Conclusion: Peripheral facial nerve paralysis in acute otitis media is rare. Antibiotics and steroids yield good outcome as conservative management. In case of failure by conservative treatment, facial nerve decompression yields a favorable outcome.
  5,937 401 5
Thyroid storm precipitated by acute biliary pancreatitis
Mehrdad Karimi, Adnan Tizmaghz
January 2017, 6(1):43-44
Thyroid storm is an acute, life-threatening exacerbation and sudden releasing large amounts of thyroid hormone in a short period of time. Nevertheless, critical aggravation of hyperthyroidism typically resulted from concurrent disorder. Synchronous management of thyroid storm along with its precipitant, such as infection is recommended. We described the case of an acute biliary pancreatitis complicated with a thyroid storm. The patient was successfully managed with a quick surgical intervention and further critical care for thyroid storm. Although it is widely believed that pancreatitis is seldom concurrent with thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm can be precipitated by a variety of factors, including intra-abdominal infections such as acute pancreatitis or perforated peptic ulcer. In conclusion, acute pancreatitis in patients with thyrotoxicosis seems to be extremely rare, but such patients should be managed intensively against underlying thyroid disorders as well as pancreatitis.
  5,863 264 -
Acute electrical injury: A systematic review
Noor-Ahmad Latifi, Hamid Karimi
May 2017, 6(3):93-96
Objective: To review low-voltage, high-voltage and lightening electrical burns in adults and children, identify novel areas that are not recognized and improve treatments results and outcome. Methods: An extensive literature search on electrical burn injuries was performed using Ovid Medline, PubMed and Embase databases from 1976 to 2016. Studies related to electrical injury in the adult and children (< 15 years of age) population were included in our study. Fifty-one research papers and review articles were identified and included in this study. Results: Total occurrence of electrical injury among burn injuries ranged from 3.5% to 15.0%. Most of them were low voltage (73%) and one fourth were high voltage and percentage of lightening injuries were very low around 2%–4% of total cases of electrical injury. Mortality is somehow higher among high voltage electrical injuries and lightening. Most of complications of them were morbid in kidney, heart, extremities (including amputations) and nervous systems. Long-term psychological problems were reported with greater incidence rates in highvoltage injuries. Psychological and posttraumatic stress disorders were also reported. Mortality rates from electrical injuries were 2.6% in low voltage and 5.2% in high voltage. Conclusions: High-voltage injury leads to greater morbidity and mortality than low-voltage one. Lightening has mortality of about 32%, higher rates of complications and specialty long-term complications. Strict multi-specialty treatment and rehabilitations are required for proper treatment of electrical injuries.
  5,454 632 -
The laparoscopic approach in emergency surgery: A review of the literature
Ionut Negoi, Mircea Beuran, Cezar Ciubotaru, Adelina Cruceru, Sorin Hostiuc, Massimo Sartelli, Matthew Hernandez, Mihaela Vartic
January 2018, 7(1):15-19
The role of laparoscopy in the acute care surgery had significantly increased during the latest years, both as a diagnostic and treatment method of all the upper or lower gastrointestinal pathologies. The objective of the present research is to review the current indications for laparoscopy in bdominal emergencies and to detail the benefits and complications associated with this approach. We have reviewed the relevant literature about this topic published between January 2005 and December 2017, using the PubMed/Medline and Web of Science Core Collection databases. According to the current evidence, we may conclude that the laparoscopic approach is an integral part of the emergency surgery for all the abdominal pathologies. Although laparoscopy requires specialized training and curricula, it brings all the benefits of minimal access in acute care arena.
  5,457 574 4
Consensus statement on layout and delivery of automatic external defibrillator in China
Chuan-Zhu Lv, Hua Zhang, Song Chen, Xiao-Ran Liu, Guo-Gang Tian, Shi-Jiao Yan
September 2020, 9(5):183-189
  5,414 303 -
Cardiovascular complications associated with spinal cord injury
Roberto Fabio Calvo-Infante, Alexis Narvaez-Rojas, Huber Padilla-Zambrano, Samer S Hoz, Amit Agrawal, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar
August 2018, 7(4):139-144
Spinal cord injury can lead to important functional, psychological and social sequelae. Despite the progress in medicine and greater understanding of the pathophysiological events associated with a traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The involvement of the autonomic nervous system has implications in acute and chronic stages of the injured spinal cord patients. The most frequent cardiovascular complications in the acute phase of the traumatic spinal lesions are bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, increased vasovagal reflexes, ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats, venous stasis, and vasodilation. In the chronic phase, we find orthostatic hypotension, alteration of the arterial pressure and the regulation of the body temperature as well as alteration of the blood volume. The knowledge of the cardiovascular alterations is of vital importance for the management and rehabilitation of the patients with spinal cord injury. In this article, we present a critical review of medical literature.
  5,157 526 -